The Congress of Berlin 1878 upon the suggestion of England, the Great Powers gave the mandate to Austro-Hungary to make annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In that way Bosnia and Herzegovina became a country of two masters formally belonged to Turkey, and in fact to Austro-Hungary. By order of the Commander-in-Chief General Filipovi?, on July 29th 1878 Austro-Hungarian troops crossed on the Bosnia – Herzegovina territory across the river Sava at Bosanski Šamac, Brod and Gradiška, across the river Una at Bosanska Kostajnica and from direction of Dalmatia at Vrgorac and Imotski. Despite resistance of the regular Ottoman army and local rebels, on October 20th 1878, by the fall of Velika Kladuša, as the last stronghold of the rebels, occupation of B&H was successfully completed.

An old image of Gospodska Street, (The Archive of Republic of Srpska in Banja Luka)

The Austria-Hungary occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1878 represented the historical turning point, which led to radical changes in economic, political and cultural life of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The capitalistic system that didn’t have the soul but the interest only – was created. It leads to rapid penetration of foreign capital, and B&H as a rich country becomes wide field of work in which former primitive natural economy is partially modified exclusively for the interests of an extremely aggressive economic policy of capitalist exploitation. In the most cases this was a mere exploitation of rich resources of B&H (timber, ore) which were in percentage of 80% exported to Austria without fair compensation.

Start of industrial production in Banja Luka is perceived before the occupation, when in 1872 in Trapisti the place nearby Banja Luka, the Trappist monks built a big mill. Shortly afterwards the brewery was built (1876) and a brick factory (1877), and in coming years the textile factory, large steam saw-mills with its own forest narrow-gauge railway between Banja Luka – Kotor Varos – Maslovare. Soon after a tobacco factory and iron foundry „Jelšingrad “were put in operation.

In 1895 in Banjaluka, city with 10.000 inhabitants, despite of the lack of electro power and sewage system began to work Gymnasium (Velika realka) which in later period created high quality staff.[1] Up to 1908 the Banjaluka Velika realka was attended by boys only, and girls’ and women’s place was supposed to be at home.

On the very outskirts of the city, linked by railway was the coal mine Lauš with caloric power plant and in 1912 along with built hydroelectric power gave the light to the city bringing the spirit of further modernisation.

Travelling communications became much better, what gave a better possibility for transport of people and goods, and it meant a better connectivity not only within B&H but with Europe as well. Already in 1912 Austria began rerouting the standard gauge railway line between Banja Luka – Jajce, but construction was later stopped by the World War I.

All economic and commercial trends, increased trade and a large investment of private capital, brought to rapid development of the city what was followed by increased population and construction of new buildings of cultural and social significance. Thus the city was fundamentally changing its appearance.

Banjalu?ka Velika realna gimnazija 1895. Objekti podignuti tokom vremena na istom mjestu:(1) Srpska ?itaonica 1898, (2) Hotel „Balkan“ 1905-30. (3) Banska uprava Vrbaske banovine

And while Sephardic Jews staying in England, Netherlands and in other advanced regions in Europe, after the exodus from Perinea Peninsula through two full centuries of persistent work and education enriched the cultural heritage of their ancestors from Spain, at the same time Sephardic Jews in Bosnia under the Turks were directed at each other, and thus received characteristics of one conservative community in a matter of education, language and culture. They gradually sank into passive and cultural decadency .The Banjaluka Jews were not exceptional, especially having in mind the fact that their number was still insignificant. But after the adoption of Decree from the Sultan Abdul Medjid in 1840 by which Jews and Christians got civil rights and the right to build places of worship and open confessional schools, conditions were changed. The emancipation of Jews in Bosnia was in substantial rise of the 1860, after foundation of the Alliance Izraelite Universelle which was active in the Balkans and awakened the Sephardic community from the dream. Until then, the Vilayet Government in relation to education took care only for the Muslim population, but the entry of Serif Topal Osman Pasha in the position of the Bosnian vizier in 1861, the educational opportunities were changed. Secondary schools Ruzdija were founded and could be attended by Jews and Christians. In 1861 the Ottoman’s Government issued the law on education which should introduce compulsory public school in the entire territory of the Ottoman Empire, but this law in Bosnia and Herzegovina has never come into effect.

The Centre of the Jewish religious life in Bosnia was Sarajevo which managed to preserve the unity of the Bosnia and Herzegovina Jewish community for a long period of time by activities of a series Jewish educational and cultural associations (La Lira, La Gloria, Matatija) and first of all of educational – cultural association La Benevolentia[2] founded in 1894 and operated on the whole territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, along with the Sarajevo Talmud Torah, Ješivot and the Jewish weeklies, at the beginning La Alborada (Dawn) and later traditional Zionistic the Jewish Consciousness and the Jewish Life – the newspapers of the Sephardic movement that in 1928 merged into the Jewish Voice.

Great contribution to the further development of the city on the Vrbas in all spheres of social and cultural life, though in the beginning small in numbers, with their education, work and persistent efforts gave members of the Banja Luka Jewish community. By the time of the Austrian occupation in Banja Luka lived mostly Sephardic Jews originally from Spain and Portugal, with their traditional Jewish-Spanish (Ladino) language. Of Sephardic families which will later be described in details and which marked and were permanently linked to Banjaluka and by whom the Jewish circles in Banja Luka were known – in the first place were distinguished families, Poljokan[3], Sarafi?, Baruch, Levi, Papo, Atijas, Altarac, Montias and Nachmias (immigrants from Serbia). These first two surnames, as it could be seen, are not in the slightest the Jewish, but were created as a result of a long term life of Sephardic Jews in these areas, what also indicated these Bosnian – Turkish coins and alluded to the acquired characteristics of individuals or the trade they practiced. Thus the Poljokans were originally named Levi and surname Poljokan (half eyed), according the narration of Luna Albahari who lived in Banja Luka from 1906 to 1916 was created in a way when father of Bohor, Rafo, Isak-Ku?e, Dudo and Salomon, as a little boy lost his eye in game and his descendants became the Poljokans, while the surname Sarafi? was developed by the actual nature of the work the family Salom was engaged in – sarafluk ( Turkish word for exchange operations/taxation-treasurer’s job) .

Long after the arrival in the Balkans mother tongue they communicated in – was a Jewish-Spanish (Ladino), while the male educated family members, due to the nature of everyday work, should know and speak the domiciled language very well. Specific characteristics of Sephardic Jews were eventually extinguished and lost. The Jewish-Spanish language was supplemented with a great number of loanwords, known as „the Balkan elements „[4], which were used as buzzwords (substitute to local words). Thus the language according the fond of original words was becoming poorer every day and a language of original homeland – the Hebrew was exclusively used by intellectual elite and gradually moved away from the poor masses who have sought their salvation in the Sephardic movement and in upcoming Zionism. What was uniquely left for all the times and why the writings of Samokovlija and Andri? had an outstanding historical-ethnological value were the religious customs and traditions of the family life which they kept in their hearts and preserved for all the time. Saturday is authentic Jewish holiday and Friday a preparation day of each Jewish home, when everything is put in the proper place and cleaned. The shops were closed a little earlier and each cadik (believer, righteous), getting into the house was kissing mezuzah [5](a doorposts of traditional Jewish homes), and then covered himself with the talith (The Prayer Mantel) [6] and began prayer arvit [7](an evening prayer) if it is working day or kudus[8] (prayer usually sung during the Sabbath meals) if it is holiday. During a prayer, a believer sometimes raises eyes toward the ceiling and swings in a rhythm and being deeply devoted to prayer; throws back a head as to be able to look forward. Great spiritual and social movements as the Sephardic movement in Bosnia was, could not happen, nor have occurred overnight, but were gradually developed towards the realization of the truth about the need for further development and education of Jews who must not have aspiration for conservatism. Most sensitive point in all this was education, in which the steps were small due to the fact that it often came into a conflict with the traditional patriarchal upbringing and lack of material resources, what sometimes was decisive. It should be mentioned that still a small number of literary contents and magazines circulated across Bosnia.

Only by annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and with the arrival of the capitalist mode of economy, a horizon of Sephardic community was more and more opened outward and aspiration toward modernization was inevitable. New economic flows and new modes of production and trade slowly brought to the knowledge that because of the backwardness of the environment, existing funds of knowledge objectively couldn’t meet or follow the general developmental needs and progress of each individual. Talking freely, all the upcoming processes of the Jewish community were actually related to the field of trade, crafts and extensive modern industrial work, which after the Austrian annexation received more significance. This was the basis for the acquisition of the Jewish working capital which gradually provided a broad education and further education of talented Jewish youth abroad, who frequently went to Vienna which was the intellectual centre of the Balkan Sephardic Jews. In Vienna, they established academic association „ESPERANSA“ whose members by their own learning and literary engagement in 1923 launched „El Mundo Sefardi “(the Sephardic World) the Journal for socio-cultural life and the Jewish education, including in it the communal spirit of modern Sephardic movement, which was the main lever of progress and revival of Sephardic culture in our environment. Therefore, the 1878 represents turning point in the life of Jews in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Annexation of this former Turkish province by the Austro-Hungary, the life of Jews in Banja Luka headed upward what enabled stronger economic, cultural and every other progress of the Jewish community and improvement of general social life of each member. Thus was achieved the level of advanced Jewish communities in far more developed European countries.

Glavna ulica. Pogled iz pravca Ferhadije prema Gradskom parku. Desno je kiraethana, muslimanska ?itaonica, izgra?ena oko 1894. godine prema projektu Kirila Ivekovi?a. Iza nje su ?epenci na ulazu u Bezistan (Pokriveni sokak) i reprezentativna dvospratnica trgovca Rafaela Dude Poljokana, zvana „Baumova palata“, koju je uzeo pod zakup trgovac kožom Baum. Lijevo je Hanište sa ku?ama (redom): veletrgovca Isidora Saloma Sarafica, trgovaca Gvozdara i Memica, trgovca Kabilja, agentura Dušana Puva?i?a (najuža zgrada u Banjaluci, široka svega dva metra), trgovca Gaje Tomi?a, gvož?ara Hamdije Afgana i kazandžije Jove Suboti?a. Posljednja u nizu je zgrada trgovca Fehima Zembe i sarafa (trgovac novcem i hartijama od vrijednosti) Todorisa Levija.

Arrival of Austro Hungary authorities caused massive arrival of ethnical group of Ashkenazi Jews[9] in Banja Luka. Firstly their predecessors came with Austro Hungary troops, as the main suppliers of the Austrian army with weapons, ammunition and food, what they also did during the World War I, then as agents and commercial travellers of large commercial stores and more as state employees in administrative services. Their migration from different parts of the Habsburg Monarchy has lasted for decades after 1878. Most of them came to Banja Luka [10] from the neighbouring Slavic provinces of Croatia, Slavonia, Hungary, Slovakia, Bohemia, Galicia, Bukovina, Moravia and other parts of Europe. The key motives that have led to their migration were primarily economic in nature, because of the fact that occupied territory represented from the economic point of view one technical – technologically undeveloped but extremely rich area in a matter of resources (timber, mineral wealth) which gave possibility of double challenge – to the rich capitalists to become more reach and to the poor who searched better job to find their hideout.

However, the main reason that led to the final decision on the migration of Ashkenazi Jews is phenomenon of arrival the anti-Semitism in the former countries of their residence. In the first decade of the twentieth century, the Germans in their arrogance and conviction that they are untouchable looked to other nations of the dual Monarchy with contempt, especially on Ashkenazi Jews. Anti-Semitism became a bad dream of Monarchy due to activity of various, so-called “Christian parties “. The Ashkenazy, although they came from different countries and were of a different background and occupations, and united only by religion (rituals), however, the faster and better than Sephardic Jews communicated with the domiciled population, primarily due to the knowledge of some of the Slavic languages. After a while, Ashkenazi settlers numerically represented almost a third of the total Jewish population in Bosnia and Herzegovina. According the census of 1895, from a total number of 8 213 Jews in Bosnia and Herzegovina there were 5 729 Sephardic Jews (70%), and Ashkenazy 2 484 (30%).[11] Even later, this ratio was not changed. This ratio for Banja Luka represents the table based on reports on the census carried out during the Austro-Hungary[12]:

Godina 1879. 1885. 1895. 1.910
Broj Jevreja 187 327 336 421 (sefarda 222, aškenaza 199)

The table shows that the numerical increase of the Jewish population is significant and from 1879 to 1895 was increased for 140 persons or about 75%. This numerical explosion is in direct connection with arrival of Ashkenazi Jews from the Dual Monarchy to Banjaluka. This process was decreased in a period from 1885-1895 as a result of change the residence of several new formed families from Banjaluka toward surrounding places Prijedor, Sanski Most, Novi and Gradiška. The Jewish families from these places were also in some family ties with those from Banjaluka. So-called the Austro Hungary Jews besides their Yiddish[13] have also spoken the other languages as good as their own native language (German, Hungarian, Czech etc.). German language was the basic language that all Ashkenazi immigrants tied and linked together and therefore in the occupied country during a census in the most cases they nationally declared themselves as Hungarians or Germans and they were mostly the protagonists of social, economic, cultural and political ideas of the occupier and exercised a certain influence on the domestic Sephardic.

Lijevo je velika ku?a porodice Salom-Sarafi?, a desno trgovina Jozefa Nahmiasa

Soon after arrival Ashkenazi Jews founded their community in Banja Luka in 1883 and in 1884 the State Government approved its Statute. Statute was identical in all previously formed Ashkenazi communities in Bosnia and Herzegovina – for Sarajevo, Visoko, Travnik, and Bijeljina and for Banja Luka as well. At the inaugural assembly the outstanding role had pharmacist Brammer, the Rabbi Herzler and the famous Ashkenazi families: Castl, Fischer, Bruckner, Herzog, Gottlieb, Schnitzler and Grünwald. These families according their professional orientation fit into the existing framework of their occupations, whose range was quite wide, with a preponderance of those who were highly educated governmental officials on high positions, financial and banking experts, lawyers, mechanical engineers, secondary school professors, doctors, dentists, pharmacists and obstetricians, veterinarians, although, on the whole, this number was not large.

The Ashkenazi contributed a lot to the economic and social development of Banja Luka at that time. They supplemented shortage in specific, insufficient and highly specialised occupations of the city.

Among the pioneers in certain sectors were: Dr Gizella Kun-Januševski, Jeti Rosenrauch, obstetrician, Jozef Bajor and Jozef Zaloscer – lawyers. The first factory owner was Moritz Grünwald (production of soda water) and Moritz Gottlieb, watchmaker and jeweller who opened on May 20th 1911 the first modern electro cinema in Banjaluka and thus enriched cultural life of the city. Soon afterwards he sold the Cinema to Ashkenazi Jew Ignac Faulweter.

A trade was and remained a major economic sector, mostly carried out by Jews. They greatly contributed to its rapid development and improvement. Numerically strengthened, they were represented in all commercial sectors in Banja Luka (the most of them were small and medium tradesmen). Foreign trade was exclusively in the hands of Sephardic traders, who in relation to the Turkish period (up to 1878) carried out drastic changes and redirected trade routes to industrially developed economic centres of the Dual Monarchy (Vienna, Budapest, Brno and Prague), putting the old trade routes from the coastal towns in another plan. Trieste as the main export port of the Austria – Hungary Monarchy in international trade got a dominant significance. When we talk about commercial shops in Banja Luka of that time, it can be freely said that the equipment and the supply of those owned by Jews [14] were among the best ones. According the list of prestige and specialised shops in Banjaluka in 1915 the status was the following: of total number of five excellent grocery stores – two were the Jewish, of seven shops in fashionable goods – three were the Jewish, and out of ten shops in colonial and groceries products – four were the Jewish ownership. They opened their shops in houses or buildings where they lived, but the ground floor was usually reserved for grocery store or handicraft workshop. A large number of shops were in Gospodska Street, now also the most famous street in Banjaluka. According former Registry of Shops, even 50% shops belonged to Jews.[15] They had the additional residential buildings with business premises, located on the outskirts of the city.

The life of the Jewish community was constantly progressing. Under the influence of modernization it was more and more transforming from religious into national community, thereby experiencing some sort of general national revival, with the constant aspiration to gather dispersed strengths which will as a needle on a scale prevail in a struggle for qualitative political solution of the Jewish question, not only in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Thanks to the progressive Jewish students who acquired their academic education in Vienna and who very early faced with upcoming wave of anti-Semitism in Austria-Hungary, the penetration of the Zionistic [16] ideas occurred in our region and just at the moment when the awakening of the Jewish national consciousness was the most needed.

The waves of Theodore Hertz’s Zionistic movement after the First Zionist Congress in Basel 1897 simply splashed the hearts of offended and humiliated Jewish youth, which soon, led by an idea of unity under the motto „all Jews in one state „, started to establish association of the Balkan Jewish Zionists „Bar Giora“, which raised generations of European Jewish Youth and thus became promoter of the great idea of general national unity. In the centre of the organization around the president David Albala were also his associates Vita Kajon, A. Pinto, Aleksandar Liht, Zlatko Rosenberg, Rebe Singer and I. Ashkenazi.[17]

The most respectable shop in fashionable goods was in Gospodska Street in Banja Luka, founded long time ago in 1881, owned by M. Schnitzler and Georg Kohn (the Republic of Srpska Archive in Banja Luka)

Braco Poljokan[18] distinguished himself among them with his knowledge, fresh spirit and rational perception of life’s problems and reality. He spent his youth in Banja Luka, academic title obtained in Vienna and Paris, built his knowledge and experience in Sephardic movement, expressed his ideas in the newspaper the Jewish Life, later in the Jewish Voice in Sarajevo – and by all this he attained the character of the Jewish national worker.

The Jewish national spirit, carried by a mass of the Jewish poor, more and more sought solution of the Jewish question over international Zionistic organisations, which after the Balfour Declaration in 1917 and British support to establishment of a Jewish State in Palestine, greatly gained in its importance. In order to resist anti-Semitism, the total assimilation and denationalization and break the shackles of the past, Jews around the world provided support to the Zionist movement, which turned into a global political organization that sought the establishment of the Jewish State. These ideas, teachings and movements have expressed interests, needs and mood of the Jewish youth in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which later led to the establishment of the Zionist Youth Association in Banja Luka, which operated within the Jewish Youth League in B&H. Despite the large contribution to economic and cultural development of Banja Luka, their participation in politics has always been questionable and marginally. But Jews have always had a loyal attitude towards the current government and open attitude towards other religions, what was caused by their specific position and fewness, why they were not significantly organized in politics on a national-confessional basis.

The centres of the Jewish life in general were the Jewish communities, as self-organizational units in the territory of a city or beyond. In the Jewish municipalities were kept the registers (pinekasi) which recorded every significant event within the community. This work was Rabbi’s duty. In new statutes approved by the National Government, it was explicitly pointed out the right of state control on the work of communities, which was not the case during the Ottoman’s rule, which didn’t openly interfere in their work. The Statute prescribed the obligations of believers that in accordance with personal incomes, give contributions for the maintenance of community and synagogue, as well as to give sadaka (Turkish word for charity) for socially vulnerable members.

Approval of Government which supported the Jewish institutions with very modest funds was necessary for selection and replacement of the rabbis and teachers of religion in the Jewish schools.

The Sephardic, domestic and Ashkenazy parties, because of permanent intolerance, operated separately in Banja Luka, what can be easily explained by the fact that Sephardic Jews after the exodus lived in these areas for centuries and became connected to the Bosnian State and its nations, felt the State as their own, what was not the case with the Ashkenazi, in regard to their origin[19]. The Sephardic Jews founded as we have already said their community named the Sephardic Israelite Religious Community in the period between 1848 and 1850. Since Jews in Banja Luka were in small numbers, their prayers were for a short period held in a rented space in the city. They built their first synagogue of wooden construction in 1870 – even during the Turkish period, on the left bank of the river Crkvena, where today is the city’s marketplace. Immediately after the attacks of Austro – Hungary troops in the summer 1878 it was burned to the ground.

Construction of the second Sephardic synagogue personally led Josef Nahmias the first Rabbi of the Sephardic community. It was built at the end of 1880 in Juki?eva Street, almost in the very centre of a city. Meldar (the Jewish primary school) was also located inside a synagogue; in the building over there was municipal area and Rabbi’s flat.

Besides Nahmias, Sephardic rabbis were also: Jakov Elias, Menahem Romano and M. Atijas, and chairmen were: Cadik Levi, S. Poljokan, Jakov Baruh and Isidor Papo.

Ivan Franjo Juki?’s Street, on the left, marked by 1, the old Sephardic temple built in 1880, and over there marked by 2 – the building of former premises the Sephardic Community for three decades (the Museum of the Republic of Srpska. Photographed in 1934)

One interesting thing is related to this synagogue – regarding the position of Aron (h) a kodesh (Hebr. case) the Holy Ark or hollow in a wall where the scrolls of the Torah were placed, which in accordance to tradition must be turned toward Jerusalem, at Sephardic on southern and at Ashkenazi on eastern side. According to Hadzi Rafo Poljokan’s narration, the construction of the temple was technically possible to be completed only if a case was facing east. The Sarajevo Rabbi was asked for an advice. The Answer was: „Besiman tov“ (Hebr. good luck) and a case remained on an eastern side.

The picture of Banja lukas Jewish cuture center from 1937 , who partial destoyed 1944, after bombard on the II World War and complete destroyed 1969 an earthquake hit Banja luka city Community protocol, (pinkas) began to be kept only from the 1905 thanks to the Solomon A. Poljokan Chairman of the Jewish Community of that time. The first records on Sephardic religious community were kept by Dr I. Izrael. The Temple was operational almost to the end of 1936 when the construction of a new one started what will be discussed in a separate chapter. Although small in number, Ashkenazy community was much richer and better equipped and organized, and the protocol was conducted of the 1883 and after approval of the Statute by the authorities. Until the construction of community building and synagogue, by all accounts, Ashkenazi used for prayers and for office the rented house in the former Street Vojvode Putnika, near the present Electro technical school. Chairmen were: R. Brammer, A. Mitler and M. Hertzog, and Rabbis M. Hercler, P. Keller[20], M. Frankfurter and Sigmund Kohn.

Ashkenazi’s Temple was on the left side of today’s the Red Cross building

Afterwards, in a very short period between 1900 and 1902 Ashkenazi built a temple of an extraordinary beauty. Both Banja Luka Jewish communities had organised service “Hevra kadisa” that took care on funeral rituals. The only common property of these two communities was a Jewish cemetery in the quarter Borik, of 2.820 m2, with small chapel and drinking fountain, formed in 1883 thanks to engagement of public official Bernard Neubach. On the left side the cemetery was fenced with high stone’s fence bordered on the Orthodox cemetery and on the right side was a pasture of 2.200 m2 ownership of both communities intended to be a spare room for cemetery – it was nationalised by the strength of the socialist regime and will certainly be a subject of expected restitution.

Skica Sefardskog kulturnog centra u B. Luci 1937

Stari izgled Gospodske ulice. Lijevo je apoteka Roberta Bramera

Mnogobrojna porodica limara Salomona Moše i Rahele Levi. Na fotosu, desno, kle?i k?erka Rifka koja je živjela u Banjoj Luci do smrti 1986. Danas u Banjoj Luci živi nekoliko njenih potomaka

Lijevo od Hotela “Palas” ku?a Salomona Haima , a desno Erne Poljokana

Gospodska ulica u Banjoj Luci. Lijevo su tri jevrejske radnje: ?asovni?arsko-draguljarska Morica Gottliba, otvorena 1902. g., trgovina mješovitom robom Morica Hercoga i zlatara Arona A. Saloma. Snimljeno 1920. g. (Arhiv Republike Srpske u Banjoj Luci).

Pogled na staro jevrejsko groblje, podignuto 1883. Snimljeno ljeta 1976.

[1] In the Banjaluka Gymnasium many Jewish professors were teaching (Sephardic and Ashkenazi). Among them were Jakov Elias (member of the First Teaching Staff in Velika realka), Dr Kalmi Altarac, Mihael Atias, Karolina Gottlieb, Berta Finci, Salamon Frankel, Dr Pinkas Kler, Dr Moritz Frankfurter, David Kohn, Ruta Levi, Rafael Stauber, Romano Menahem, Eleazar Levi, Avram Pinto, M. Stauber.

[2] „La Benevolentia“ has launched initiatives for compilation of the Hebrew Dictionary and Grammar, establishment of theological seminary and supported education of a generations.

[3] Trading skilfulness grouped the Poljokans among the first tradesmen of Banja Luka.

[4] Balkan element – represents a mixture of Turkish, Arabian and Greek words and the words of the Balkan nations, which later created a subspecies of the Jewish-Spanish language.

[5] The small box with the sacred amulets placed on the right doorpost.

[6] The Rabbi’ s scarf

[7] Evening prayer of an individual

[8] Festive prayers

[9] Descendants of Jews who moved to the west and then toward eastern Europe, Ashkenazi (Hebr. German) for the Jews in Germany and since the 16th century for the Jews in the north, the central and eastern Europe

[10] Individual Ashkenazi families absorbed by Sephardic Jews were in Banjaluka even before 1878

[11] A. Pinto, the Sarajevo Jews and B&H, Sarajevo 1987

[12] Statistic Department of State Government Sarajevo, The Census of Population in B&H 1910, Sarajevo 1912

[13] Yiddish, colloquial language of the Ashkenazi – mixture of the old Hebrew and German with Slavic languages

[14] A good reputation in the Old Charsija (Stara ?aršija) had: Department Store of Isak Poljokan and Sons, Department Store of Dudo Poljokan at Bezistan and Baum’s Shop in Leather Goods. The Poljokans supplied goods from large Italian, Austrian, French and Constantinople trading firms, aiming to arrange their shops according European criteria.

[15] In Gospodska street the shops possessed: Brammer (the Pharmacy), J. Moritz (Porceline), Gottlieb ( the Goldsmith’s), M. Salom (the Watchmaker’s and Optician’s Shop ), Schnitzler and Kohn (Department Store), Salom ( the Watchmaker& Jewellery Shop ), Altarac ( the Haberdasher’s Shop ), Kaff (the Shoes Shop), Fischer (the Ironmongery), B. Levi (Textile), Pesah (Tailor’s), Alkalaj (the Toy Shop), Mocnaj ( the Bakery), Aron Salom (the Watchmaker & Jewellery Shop) and Moritz Herzog Moris (Colonial).

In Tito’s Road, between streets Moša Pijade and Ivo Lola Ribar, the shops possessed: Vajkert (the Watchmaker’s Shop), Teodor Weiss (Vajs) and Sons (the Colonial Goods Store), Todoros Levi (the Shop & Exchange Office), David Izrael (the Shop) and Solomon Haim Poljokan (the Grocery & Fashionable Goods).

Between Bezistan and Ferhadija the shops possessed: Kabiljo (Tradesman), Salom Sarafi? (Exchange Office), Žak Sarafi? (Outpatient Department) and Jaho Nachmias (Agency and Trade Shop).

[16] Zionism is national Jewish movement to arouse the feelings of national affiliation and identity of the Jews across the world, pointing out the need for creation of the Jewish State.

[17] P. Albala, Dr D. Albala as the Jewish national worker, the Jewish Almanac 57/58, Belgrade 1958

[18] Braco Poljokan comes from an old merchant Jewish family from Banjaluka, which according their abilities became distinguished family of that time. Immediately after graduation from high school in Banja Luka he went to study in Graz, Vienna and Paris, where he joined the Zionist movement, and in Sarajevo he was the leader of an advanced Sephardic movement – he worked on the gathering of Sephardic Jews around the world.

[19] Ashkenazi, ethnic group of northern Europe, the Mid Europe and eastern Europe (German, Polish, Russian) Jews

[20] Rabbi Pinkas Keller organised courses in Hebrew in Banjaluka. In 1925 he moved to Bohemia and in Trencin he was appointed for the Senior Rabbi.