Along with participation in trade flows in the first half of the XX century it was noticed a significant participation of Jews in social and cultural life of the city on the river Vrbas. During interwar period in Banja Luka, within the Federation of Jews the Kingdom of SHS, were effective some important Jewish associations of different characteristics and orientation. Activities of the Jewish Associations in Banja Luka were also significantly developed thanks to efforts and persistent work of small number of the Jewish youth and student intelligence, which brought many advanced and always actual European ideas about the future solution of the Jewish question and on Zionism, thus according its importance, surpassed many developed Jewish Associations from near and far environment. This time was quite sensitive for the broader field of culture, if we have in mind an attempt of Spain to promote the Hispanic culture at the expense of allegedly discovered Sephardic generation that expresses their emotions in Spanish language, then attempt of an intensive anti-Semitist campaign created after the dissolution of the Dual Monarchy that forced the masses of Ashkenazi to be scattered all over the world. And finally, expansion of advanced Sephardic and Zionist movement, who with their aspirations for unionisation of Jews attracted broad masses of the youth and student intelligence, to take over stronger and more decisive fight against unjust solution of the Jewish question. In Banja Luka, there were more active associations with the Jewish signs that reflected generational unity within the community and mutual trust between the Sephardic and Ashkenazi Communities, which became stronger along with the strengthening of the Zionist movement.

The oldest and the most lasting Jewish association in Banja Luka was the Jewish civil association Kadimah (Forward in Hebr.) which took care on preservation of civil equality of Jews in a matter of democracy and social protection. The chairman of the Association in mid 1922 was Mr. Aaron A. Salom.

The oldest Jewish humanitarian association in B&H “La Benevolentia “ was established in 1892 and worked on the entire territory of B&H and in Banja Luka as well. The Association had a detailed program with the ultimate goal of protection and development of the Jewish communities in the territory of the Kingdom of SHS, what is confirmed in 1924 at the celebration of the thirty years of the foundation. All the members of the Federation of the Yugoslav Jewish Communities gathered and paid the ultimate recognition to La Benevolentia for its work, not only in the field of social welfare but primarily in the field of training and education of young and promising generations that introduced the dynamics in the development of home Jewish Communities.

It was noticeable activity of the Banja Luka Jewish Association ESPERANSA founded at the beginning of 1925. It was extended hand of the Vienna and later of the Zagreb Association that had the same name of the Sephardic movement. Its activity was based on the study of history, literature and philosophy of the Jewish people, with special emphasis on the study of the Jewish-Spanish language Ladino and history of the Sephardic Jews. Great credit for the successful work of the Banja Luka ESPERANSA belongs to the Viennese student Braco Poljokan – the great Jewish national worker from Banjaluka, who dedicated all his work through ESPERANSA and the Jewish newspapers the Viennese Sephardic World and later the Jewish Voice, to unification of the Jewish people all over the world. Thanks to his involvement, editorial office of the Jewish life had its corresponding member from Banja Luka (Jakov Levi).

The social status of the Banjaluka Jewish Community members was subject of a permanent care and support of the Jewish Civil Association Beruria, whose chairman for many years was Erna Poljokan. Of three Jewish youth associations which worked in Banjaluka, on the first place we have to mention Ezra founded in 1920. It consisted of about 40 members and had its own reading room in which the training was carried out and the Jewish history studied, with special emphasis on the possibilities of active work on improvement the position of the Jewish youth in the world. Among others, the chairmen of this society were Samuel Romano and David Sarafi?. The second was a Women’s Jewish Youth Association Debora, a third Secondary School Zionist Association B’ne Cion (Hebr. Sons of Zion), which had 22 active members, involved in the following sections: literary, hazena and football. Their presidents were B. Filenstajn and the Jewish national worker Salomom (Emil) Sarafi?.

In response to the invading anti-Semitism after the dissolution of the Dual Monarchy, Zionist movement in B&H was constantly growing and dealt over local Zionistic organizations. One of them was the Banjaluka Wizo – Zionistic organisation which operated within the International Zionistic Women’s Organisation. In the leadership of the organization with an active and positive attitude towards Zionism was distinguished representative of the older generation – Hadzi Rafo Poljokan, of the younger – Rafo Levi, F. Hofmann and Max Weiss.

Of sports clubs in Banja Luka was active traditional football club named Makabi (Hebr. Hammer), which on a regular bases locked horns with local football clubs from Banjaluka and Prijedor. It existed up to 1930.

Pioneering role in the Banjaluka female collective sport played members of Makabi– Girl’s Sports Club, who started to play hazena (type of girl’s ball game) and thus they became the first Banjaluka’s Women who started to develop the team sport. Shortly after its foundation, in July 1922, they played the first official match against Women’s sports club Makabi from Tuzla and won. With their good performance hazena players of the club Makabi provided participation on the third competition of the Jewish Youth Associations – the Kingdom of SHS in Zagreb.

When it comes to chess, the Jews Stephen Solomon and Isaac Rosenberg were outstanding chess players and contributed to the development of the Banjaluka chess clubs.

All aforementioned associations were related to the Banja Luka Jewish Community, from which the members were recruited, and these associations directly acted within the Federation of the Jewish Communities the Kingdom of SHS. The Jewish communities and mentioned organizations always cherished tradition of celebrating the Jewish national holidays that passed from generation to generation and provoked previous memories on the dearest ones to the descendents who under far more difficult conditions, transferred and cherished this tradition. Celebration of the Jewish historical holidays have always been marked by distinctive religious rituals and appropriate prayers in the communities and in families , pointing out the religious and national significance as an unique entity that saved the Jewish people from the Flood to the modern age.

Moritz Levi was distinguished activist of the Student’s organisation Makabi.

Charity within the community was very strongly represented especially in a matter of the support to the poor. Donors among the Jewish people have just responded to any humanitarian action, giving significant donations, not looking at religion, colour or nation. It’s especially worth noting the activity for benefit of the Foundation for widows and war orphans, conducted in 1917 in wider region. The Jews have been engaged on this issue in almost all charitable campaigns, as individuals and as activists of the Red Cross. Thus, in 1939 two Jews of this organization were awarded – tradesman Georg Kohn (?uro Kon) by golden, and Erna Nachmias by silver medal.

In the field of artistic activity international reputation as a musician gained two Jewish girls from Banjaluka: Adi Almosino (daughter of Moritz Almosino) and Rahela Poljokan, while outstanding literary workers were: Zlatko Grunwald-Gorjan, Hans Brammer and Braco Poljokan. Salomon Papo distinguished himself in a field of fine arts as a painter expressionist who received academic education in Zagreb.

During 1923 Jewish students have launched humoristic-satirical newspaper La Trazera (in Ladino butt), whose texts were printed in the Ladino and Serbian language. Max Rosenrauch was a chief editor. La Trazera was cancelled immediately after the first edition because of current government criticism.

Significant participation of Jews in the cultural and social life of Banjaluka in general was more a result of their education, agility and quality but less of quantity. According to national statistics and census in 1921 – in Bosnia and Herzegovina lived only 12 028, according to statistics of the League of Rabbis 13 700 Jews.

In Banja Luka district, according to state statistics, in an area of 9018 km2, in 1910 lived 421 Jews. For 1921 there are different data and the number ranges from speculative 1100 (which is unlikely) to 625 (which is far more acceptable). In Banja Luka district, in an area of 1614 km2 lived only one Jew what means that Jews exclusively lived in the city. From the results of the census of 1931 it can be concluded that the number of Jews has been stagnated or even to a certain extent decreased because of the alleged migration of the Jewish families, primarily in the surrounding villages (Sanski Most, Prijedor, Kotor Varoš, Gradiška), and toward the major centres (Sarajevo, Zagreb and Belgrade).

After 1931 the number of Jews in Banja Luka was constantly growing, and before the Second World War their number reached the figure from 450 to 480 members. Afore mentioned can’t be categorical claim. Sources of these data in 10-20% and more, differ from the official statistical reports, which cannot be accepted as absolutely correct, because the life practice and situation in the field are more reliable indicators. We should not deny one fatal truth, which could be considered from many aspects and which even then, was greatly actual and present. Undeniable fact is that already two thirds of Jews were not declared themselves as Ashkenazi Jews. This fact, with an emotional fear of possible loss of family and property was expressed in particular in an atmosphere of growth and actualization of pro fascistic anti-Semitism. Everything indicated that the awareness on assimilation of Jews, which the Balkan students brought from the University of Vienna, Budapest and Prague in our regions, quickly became a reality. The assimilated easily received other nationality for alleged bad memories on slavery and ghetto. They practiced their religion at home and in synagogues but outside they were not Jews. Opinion of the non Jewish environment toward the assimilated members was unreliable and very often inclined toward anti – Semitism, what in a period from 1933 to 1940 brought to massive emigration of the Ashkenazi Jews from European countries, primarily Germany, Austria, Hungary and Czechoslovakia. These were times of great instability and unrest.